Although the UN has made progress in recent years Forsta kartan over var del av universum engaging more substantively with non-state actors UN-speak for everyone and anyone outside of national governments, which constitute the UN membership clubthe contradictions and tensions in this arrangement were exposed during the protracted negotiations over the NUA, with some governments opposing the recognition of subnational i.
The final NUA text is at https: While what is by far the largest such event ever held in the Ecuadorian capital is inevitably creating bottlenecks, at the single entry and badge issuing locations, the continued delays — meaning that many people have been missing or arriving late for their sessions — has by Tuesday morning led to the event being dubbed Queueto by some frustrated participants. By Wednesday, additional scanners had been installed — but since the number of registered participants was known in advance, the inadequacy of arrangements was baffling.
The problem has been exacerbated by the summit being split into two adjacent sites, requiring separate security entry procedures each time one moves between the two. Forsta kartan over var del av universum official programme and selected networking and side events are in the main Casa del Cultura, while the rest take place in the Exhibition area. Although they could readily have been integrated into a single campus, the latter site is open to the public in an effort to make the event accessible to ordinary citizens, hence necessitating separate screening.
Preparations for the summit, especially in relation to the approval and scheduling of networking and side events, had also been chaotic, leading to a frantic last-minute scramble for alternative venues and travel arrangements. While noting the importance of the summit, he pointing out that, as the signatories, national governments held the ultimate responsibility for the NUA and its implementation.
He must have been shifting in Forsta kartan over var del av universum seat as one after the other, the dynamic current mayor of Barcelona, followed by her counterparts from Dakar and Montreal, hailed the importance of the NUA and asserted confidently in Spanish, French and English that cities are in the frontline of the struggle against climate change and other challenges, as well as action and implementation.
Since Monday, while government delegates have been preoccupied by the usual summitry and starting to focus on how to move forward, not least with fundraising for implementation, other participants have been offered a plethora of competing presentations of every sort. Lectures, GIS and urban database presentations, panel discussions, exhibits and book launches on both sites have jostled for attention.
My own agenda has been packed, with committee planning meetings, discussions about potential future research and conference collaborations and catching up with colleagues from around the world fitted around speaking commitments. Accessible, green and fair and Co-production in Action: This was ably led by Jan, competing with speakers and music in adjacent pavilions. Part of my contribution focused on our experience using co-production methodologies, a topic that also arose in panel discussions on urban resilience and change for Future Earth, and on the work of the Urbanisation and Global Environmental Change programme over its ten-year life, now concluding.
The only commodity in short supply has been sleep! My purpose in this comment is to emphasise four salient points about the current state of play and to propose a way forward that is both straightforward and practicable, and which could thus greatly assist all stakeholders by Forsta kartan over var del av universum a unity of purpose. First, it is vital that all those engaged or with interests in promoting urban sustainability keep focused on the essentials and not lose the unprecedented and historic opportunity that the build-up to Quito represents.
If, for any of a number of reasons, the moment is lost — as many opposing vested interests would dearly love — there will be no going back. Second, a key element of this historic moment is that the NUA and urban SDG like the SDGs as a whole in effect provide the urban components of Agenda and are framed in terms of the imperative of achieving global sustainable urban development.
Indeed, what needs to be done in OECD countries in terms of decarbonisation, retrofitting and redesign of the urban fabric is no less formidable than building sustainably out of urban poverty in new and existing urban areas elsewhere.
Third, the importance of the Forsta kartan over var del av universum urban focus reflects not only the need for transitions and transformations to urban sustainability per se but also the centrality of this process to the attainment of overall societal sustainable development. Some cities might appear superficially as islands of concrete, brick, steel, glass, tarmac, mud blocks, corrugated sheeting, wood and plastic, but this would be misleading.
What happens in urban areas has profound implications beyond their boundaries as well as inside them. Fundamentally, rural sustainable development is no more feasible without urban sustainability than vice versa. Finally, if this is the urban century, we need to be attentive to urban areas of all sizes in all locations. These, after all, also tend to dominate the headlines about explosive urban growth, the increasing number of megacities outside of Euro-America, prestige symbols of urban modernity including gleaming transport hubs, elite megaprojects and, most curious of all, the great phallic race to erect the tallest, most virile freestanding tower in the worldand, at present, unwanted flows of desperate migrants and refugees from other regions.
Nevertheless, the dynamics of urban growth have already been shifting and much current and future growth will occur in secondary, intermediate and smaller urban centres.
Their sustainable planning, development and management are therefore fundamental to sustainable urban and societal futures. So how, given this diversity, complexity and sometimes strong opposition from interests vested in the Forsta kartan over var del av universum quo, can the prospects for the urban century to become the urban sustainability century be maximised? First, using incentives for a limited period and effective and enforced regulations appropriate to local conditions to encourage movement towards urban economic greening on a clear timetable.
This would have the purpose of demonstrating quickly — as the evidence is showing increasingly clearly in many parts of the world — that such transitions provide and present substantial net economic opportunities rather than survival threats to the construction, urban transport and other sectors often associated with opposition to sustainability transitions. If they can be enrolled as supporters exploiting new opportunities, a key obstacle will have been overcome. Even authoritarian governments, including in China, are beginning to show movement in this area, also haunted by numerous domestic environmental disasters.
Research around the world is showing increasingly that such multilevel governance, while often difficult to achieve, provides a crucial mechanism for sustainability transitions, precisely because no level of government or mode of governance can do it alone. Fourth, in support of this, deploying substantive participatory methods, including new forms of co-design and co-production to engage diverse stakeholder groups actively in locally appropriate and relevant research and governance, can play important roles in overcoming entrenched conflicts and institutional antagonisms.
Finally, following from the previous point and simultaneously coming back to my starting point, there is a straightforward way to bring the currently rather separate AgendaNUA and SDGs together that offers a path forwards that will enhance their prospects of success.
Despite its positive and progressive content, the NUA Zero Draft was long and complex and lacked any clear implementation mechanism or process beyond, in effect, relying on national governments to adopt it and proceed in their own ways. Conversely, the SDGs offer a holistic set of metrics for gauging progress towards sustainability on approaching variables. However, the challenge of implementing the SDGs around the world are formidable, with many voices objecting to the complexity and cost.
Such objections could readily be assuaged if they were linked to relevant aspects of Agenda and the NUA to monitor and evaluate progress rather than being implemented in isolation. This is the first in what we hope will become a regular Mistra Urban Futures blogspot, to which various voices from our LIPs and partners will contribute.
To get the ball rolling, it is perhaps appropriate that I am writing from COP21 in Paris, where I have been representing MUF for the last couple of days and taking the temperature, so to speak, of negotiations and — equally importantly — the expectations surrounding them.
My strongest impression, substantiated by others I have spoken to, is that cities and urban climate change issues are considerably more in evidence than previously. Paris as host has its own stand but individual cities and urban associations are evident in many national pavilions or in the displays on regional associations, international agencies and NGOs and the like.
Really heartening was the consistency and Forsta kartan over var del av universum of the issues raised, priorities articulated and examples of good practice and necessary change cited.
Most of us were later interviewed live on air by Kaj Embrenthe session organiser and facilitator. Optimistic because the world has moved on, the evidence of advancing climate change and its effects not least on and in urban areas is clearer than ever and more rapid than previously anticipated, and because some of the coalitions of interest around the negotiation process have changed tangibly. Interestingly, perhaps, African solidarity has probably deepened, despite the wider diversity of active engagement with climate change challenges evident on the continent.
Last night I listened to several of the African negotiators reporting soberly and admitting to some continuing frustration, not least in terms of responses to their and other G77 efforts to get the target mean global temperature increase reduced from 2C to 1.
One hopeful sign was the specialist on gender rights reporting satisfaction at progress. In contrast, I have just attended a press conference by the chief US negotiator, Todd Stern, who reflected the very different posture of the US government under Obama.
Although indicating that a 1. The atmosphere in the press conference was calm and no hostile questions emerged. If a week is a long time in politics, it is a very long time in global governance negotiations. How far the remaining gaps can be closed remains to be seen but with so much at stake and the Habitat III summit just 10 months away, we can but hope that the interests in favour of a deal embodying meaningful emissions reductions and a viable global adaptation fund will prevail over those against.
By contrast, applied research by many academics in the global South has always been normal and perhaps even essential as a supplement to low university salaries. In principle this has given Southern researchers a headstart in competitive bidding for such work, especially in partnership with Northern institutions more experienced in the complex bureaucratic grant application stakes.
These statements then form a key part of post-project evaluations. These new applied demands have often caused consternation either at the principle of more narrowly defined research performance criteria or the instrumentality and inappropriateness of some of the required metrics. Perhaps the most extreme form of such top-down prescription is the way in which the Research Excellent Framework septennial assessment
Forsta kartan over var del av universum UK university research comprised one section on impact, which was defined in a way far more suited to linear industrial innovation and production processes than the complexities of social and multi- and transdisciplinary sustainability science, in which unpredictability is a central feature.
Forsta kartan over var del av universum formidable challenges, ideal opportunities to undertake focused sustainability research which combines intellectual and applied dimensions may present themselves unexpectedly. Unlike the MDGs, which applied only to poorer countries, annual reporting on the SDG targets by means of sets of indicators for each will be required of all countries.
Another innovative feature is the inclusion of a goal no. Although because of UN system rules, national governments will be the reporting authorities, local authorities will inevitably play important roles in data collection and upward reporting to the national level. This way of working and the golden opportunities to undertake systematic, applied comparative urban research across these research platforms provided important incentives for me.
This event was one in a series preparing the targets and indicators for Goal 11, To make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. The challenge is immense: Unlike in health, education and other sectors, there is no internationally agreed definition of what constitutes an urban area.
Instead, most countries have their own definitions that reflect local urban and planning history, colonial inheritances, administrative and institutional arrangements, socio-cultural traditions and political conditions. Access to public transport is an indicator for urban sustainability research. Picture from Studentlski Trg in Belgrade.
Following three days of intense debate and as our workshop outcome document was submitted to SDSN, it occurred to me that no amount of work in a vacuum by an international group of academics, NGO, UN and local authority planning staff was going to be able to identify and get political acceptance of a suite of such technical indicators that would be both practicable and helpful in promoting sustainability transitions in the huge diversity of urban areas worldwide.
Hence it occurred to me that our four local platforms might provide ideal testing grounds for the targets and indicators since they are all secondary or intermediate cities located in very different geopolitical, geo-economic and socio-cultural contexts and together constitute a sample reasonably representative of the diversity of our urban world.
Eventually Bangalore, a multimillion city but by no means the largest in India and where Aromar Revi, the co-chair of the USDG campaign is based, was added for yet greater diversity. Mistra and Sida agreed to fund the pilot project, which is current running across the five cities and providing invaluable feedback. Unsurprisingly, there is very little on which all five cities appear to Forsta kartan over var del av universum data to hand, the capacity to collect it cheaply, or agree on the relevance or importance of individual indicators.
A draft will be presented at the next USDG campaign workshop, to be held at MUF in Gothenburg from th June, and where the findings and implications will be mulled over. Revisions to the current draft set of targets and indicators will be directly informed by these research results, and will then be forwarded to SDSN for the final stages of negotiations over the northern hemisphere summer. Den funktionella formen spelar roll. Vilka delar det offentliga rummet? Steve Connor reports from a project workshop with Gothenburg, Cape Town, Kisumu and Greater Manchester, sharing their insights on how sustainability is governed and delivered in their respective cities.
For sustainability wonks this means that the sustainable development challenge is intractably linked to how we grow, govern and design our cities. Can we deliver a future where those cities are greener, have a density that reduces sprawl and makes them more efficient, and are fair in terms of reduced polarities between the rich and the poor? This critical question has shaped the programme for an internationally-focused research centre attached to Chalmers University in Gothenburg called Mistra Urban Futures.
With striking and useful similarities between the cities but enough divergence to stretch the thinking gear of those involved, the conversation was a productive one. The Gothenburg team shared first. The city region is made up of 13 municipalities which first joined together as a group inwhen they also crafted their first policies on sustainability.
The central authority for the city itself is a left-leaning coalition of socialists and greens that serves a population of ,; the other metropolitan authorities in the partnership are centre-right and are closer in policy terms to the wider national policy picture. From the initial 13 authorities, to the BRG, the strategic transport authority, the private sector, the two main Universities and a network of professionals and experts called HUR, the challenge is to build:.
With four million citizens Cape Town is a good-sized city region to act as a comparator although its status
Forsta kartan over var del av universum a relatively young democracy brings with it a set of very unique challenges including enduring poverty, inequalities and environmental degradation.
The city policies covered: Seven main themes have emerged out of the research so far, including an overarching question put by Amy Davison of the City of Cape Town: Another theme the Cape Town research has flagged up is the need to unlock institutional knowledge to help deliver sustainability. Even though the wider city region has been through significant changes, some individuals have been in civil service posts for 20 years and have no easy mechanism for sharing a huge wealth of personal experience.
The LIP process for Cape Town aside, there is a critical lack of opportunities for policy makers, business and politicians to come together and interact around sustainability issues and create any kind of deliberative process. This lack of a conversation on sustainability is exacerbated by short term electoral cycles that see personalities, and policies, change.
Forsta kartan over var del av universum as an issue or area of concern does get more traction, it seems, when it plays to the wider aspiration set of the city. HiFi. USB D/A konverterek · Hálózati audio lejátszók · Erősítők · SACD & CD lejátszó · Lemezjátszók.
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Skulle de ha pendlat? Pancake 29 januari kl. A strong synergy between environmental and cultural values was critical to the birth of the sustainability agenda: Har alltid undrat om Palme har sagt det eller blivit felciterad! It is time to open up the dominant ways of making things tangible, by bringing in the voices of those who are trying to make a difference in the places in which they live. The Green Team agrees on targets, specifically for transport, waste and communication.
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To do this they have developed their own accountability procedures. About the project The research case is Dunga Beach, a small fisherfolk community six kilometres outside Kisumu town in Kisumu County. Do we need additional tax revenue streams when we struggle to marshal and spend the existing fiscus with any real impact? Lenasj diskussion 17 mars kl. Sustainability in Cultural Programming? Beth Perry profiles the environmental sustainability activities of Manchester International Festival within the emerging cultural ecology of the city.
This revenue is used to cross-subsidise electricity for poor households and other general municipal services.
Why do people find it so weird when people are alone?De waarde van beleggingen en de inkomsten daaruit kunnen fluctueren, uw Bekijk de meest recente informatie over de verschillende Aberdeen-fondsen. Detta talade emot den vedertagna synen på universum, enligt vilken ingen förändring Detta var den första publiceringen av denna modell på engelska språket - en I huvudsak var det en ledig översättning av kapitel ur Kopernikus' bok De till oändligheten, illustrerat med en karta över den kopernikanska världsbilden..