Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Michael Walls Printed by: Mot denna bakgrund inrattades en forskarskola i utbildningsvetenskap for larare.
De forsta doktorandema paborjade sin utbildning hostterminen Forskarskolan ar fakultetsovergripande och bedrivs i samarbete med de fakulteter som medverkar i lararutbildningen vid GU.
For narvarande medverkar sex fakultetsnamnder: Vid fern fakulteter har nya forskarutbildningsamnen inrattats for att kunna Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer i forskarskolans utbildningsvetenskapliga inriktning. Forskarskolan bedrivs aven i samarbete med skolhuvudman i Goteborgs stad, Goteborgsregionen, Partille konmiun, Boras stad, Falkopings kommun samt Hogskolan i Boras, Hogskolan i Kalmar, Hogskolan Vast och Chalmers tekniska hogskola.
English with a summary in Swedish Department: While the latter has provided a sense of balance, it has generally been illusory. This notion undergirds the discourses discussed above and constitutes a particular order Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer discourse.
In other words, an emphasis on understanding the roots of historical conflicts as linked to the cultural, political, ideological and economic dimensions of the international system was not apparent 1 will later discuss the content of the current Swedish curriculum guidelines regarding the critical aims of the History subject. A key and straightforward question to ask is whether the History school textbooks 1 will examine here provide a broad and critical understanding of the historical roots of the conflict and, indeed, other conflicts.
This speaks to a further aim of educating a citizenry towards understanding the importance of establishing world peace as well as the aim of examining how our own governments either contribute to it or prevent it. Put simply, with regard to the educational framing of conflicts in general, we may ask to which degree Swedish school knowledge either reflects the discourses of the powerful or the tradition of Swedish neutrality.
Given the political and economic transformations of the last two decades both locally and internationally, these inquiries are important to keep in mind. Of importance too, is the study of the historical and cultural contexts within which school textbook content in particular and curriculum knowledge in general is situated.
For example, with regard to understanding how particular topics and themes are selected and organised in relation to the historical conflict under analysis here, the examination of the impact of historical events significant to a particular social, cultural, political and historical context, will all provide a broader framework. For example, the asymmetrical power relations between the parties to the conflict on the ground may also have an impact on the kind of knowledge claims which enter into mainstream political and media discourse and, more specifically, mainstream educational discourse.
One illustration of this has been observed by the way in which the Oslo peace process has been framed. In addition, the interaction between such pivotal events as the Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer of six million European Jews and a reconnection to the Holy Land in the post-war years may together play a part in understanding some of the aspects of the cultural and political context within which mainstream knowledge on the conflict has been constructed.
To point to another example of the importance and effect of pivotal historical events, the explosions of the first and second Intifcidcis had an impact both on mainstream perceptions and thereto school textbook narratives see analysis chapters. For example, this impact has been noted through coverage of the plight of the Palestinians and the nature of the Israeli occupation in the West Rank and Gaza as well as the violent actions and reactions between the parties the conflict.
Pointing briefly to examples of the ideological dimensions of textbook knowledge on the conflict, topics that have either been excluded or played down refer to the examination of the political-ideological context of late 19th century nationalism, colonialism and the connection of both of these to the issue of political Zionism.
In the textbooks I have examined Zionism is often framed as a political movement formed to facilitate the return of the Jewish people to its ancient homeland after millennia of persecution. A similar awareness of the exclusion of Islam from Judeo-Christian tradition is expressed in the second of my interviews too.
Furthermore, on the basis of a small number of interviews held with several History and Social Science teachers I will examine the ways in they relate to the textbook content and scholarly debate on the conflict and the ways in which they discuss the history of the conflict themselves. On the basis of the findings from my analysis in later chapters, 1 will discuss some of the policy implications for teaching on the conflict and will tentatively suggest other possible questions to pursue in relation to understanding and explaining the history of the conflict in 9 th grade Swedish History school textbooks.
In that study 1 examined four History school textbooks published between the period of the mid to late s and early s. At that time the terrain was Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer to me and as a result the questions 1 asked were only designed to acquaint myself with their the general treatment of the conflict. Examples of how the issues are framed are many and in some cases appear to contain both a negative and positive bias.
Importantly, the historical plight of the Jewish people is highlighted at the beginning of some of the sections 1 have analysed. However, the plight of the Palestinian Arabs is not highlighted in the same way. Israelis are often presented as benign, victims, retaliatory not aggressive or violent.
Arab Palestinians are represented as aggressive, violent and somewhat irrational. Palestinians are predisposed to violence, while Israelis merely seek peace. This discourse on the meaning of the conflict creates an impression which misleads and misinforms, 20The study was in fact the final examination essay for my teacher certificate which I completed in the spring of These topics and themes provided a context or framework from which to introduce and study the history of the conflict.
An important part of the Palestinian historical narrative, namely, the al-Nakba and the expulsion and flight of the Palestinian Arabs in also appeared in some of the textbooks somewhere in the middle of a text. Briefly mentioned in the textbooks, this event provided more or less the only back-drop to the plight of the Palestinian-Arabs.
Another finding I made too referred to positive and negative biases in the form of reductive images or one-dimensional roles ascribed to both parties to the conflict. For example, references which reinforced certain stereotypes were the image of Israelis as victims, as reinforced by the references to the Nazi holocaust and historical Jewish suffering, and the Palestinians as aggressors or rejectionists, with references to the Arab rejection of the Partition Plan and the reaction of the Arab states to the establishment of Israel in Examination of the History textbook chapters for this thesis has more or less confirmed a repetition of the above with a number of important exceptions which will be discussed later.
New analytical problems In connection to the current thesis project, new analytical problems have emerged which greatly extend the scope of the previously pilot study. Not only from a long-term perspective, but also from the present, all human activity and all development of knowledge has a historical dimension.
History develops a knowledge which makes it possible to see oneself and events in present and also as part of a historical process. The aim of the subject is to develop critical thinking and an analytical approach as a tool for understanding and explaining society and its culture, my italics 22 Here the subject of History is described and intended as a tool for critical thinking.
With this in mind pupils are to jHistory, Compulsory School, http: As 1 touched upon in the introduction, what 1 wish to analyse here is the effect of the local and global political, ideological and cultural context on the construction of Swedish History school textbook knowledge.
For example, the opening section under the above heading reads: The first point to make here is what 1 have identified as a tension between the aims connected to how the history subject should be taught in Swedish Lower Secondary schools and critical learning. Apart from the changes to curriculum approaches that Englund et al have highlighted, and whose work 1 will discuss more in chapter two, what this brief examination of Swedish Lower Secondary school history curriculum goals demonstrates is the importance of understanding the very many cultural and ideological premises upon which education curriculum is based.
For example, as 1 have tried to show, the curriculum aims presented above tacitly instantiate ideological assumptions connected
Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer the particular national cultural setting, its History and culture. At the same time the principle of critical reflection is also encouraged.
These questions are connected in turn to the two overarching questions already broached in the introduction Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer this chapter. Which particular topics and themes dominate? What do teachers themselves teach on the history of the conflict? Which topics and themes do they select? How do they relate to the conflict and how does this influence their selection and understanding of topics and themes? Which discourses may be identified in connection with the above?
The above questions form the basis upon which 1 have constructed my interview guide and questions for the analysis of textbook chapter content and interview transcriptions. A common pattern throughout the different examples of the Israeli research shows how political transformations throughout the history of the conflict have impacted upon curriculum development.
For example, such developments have challenged fixed ideological positions and biases. However, as the research also shows, this is by no means a linear process and even the most recent curriculum content may reproduce traces of ideological positions and bias on both sides. The kind of topics covered which bear some relationship to my own has the been the work by among others Kjell Flarenstam and his dissertation entitled Skolboks-Islam and more recently his Kan du horn vindhasten?
However, in the coverage of the Intifada a discursive shift occurs. What this means is that the change in the bipolar world order shifts from a superpower discourse during the Cold War to an international discourse with implications for both policies towards the parties to the conflict and popular perceptions of the conflict and the parties to it.
Turning to the study on Swedish History school textbooks, 1 have examined a teacher-student essay which contains a section on how the conflict is presented in a small number of Swedish school textbooks for the Upper Secondary level.
The essay is worth mentioning both with regard to how it resonates with my own findings and the way in which the authors themselves "Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer" to the content they have analysed. Furthermore, it provides a comparative point of departure along with my own pilot-study for discussing the research carried out in Israel see below. Vilken historia ger vi var elever, examensarbete, pp.
The literature used in history education does not say much about Middle East history. Students want to learn more about the history of the U. Teachers do try to make use of the ethnic background of the students. Following this introduction to the content of the textbooks the authors go on to provide a critical analysis of their findings.
Gleerups bada verk, Alla tiders historia och Perspektiv pa historien tar bada avstamp till konflikten redan ar Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer e. Alltsa gar dessa bada bocker langt tillbaka i historien i deras redogorelser for bakgrundshistoriken. Riktigt lika langt tillbaka i tiden stracker sig inte Epok dar forfattarens bakgrundsresonemang tar sin borjan i och med sionismens framvaxt under talet. Epos inleder i sin tur sin bakgrundskildring med forsta varldskrigets forvecklingar i sakfragan.
De fyra bockerna anvander sig alia av bade ett aktors och ett strukturperspektiv dar framst FN, judama, USA, Sovjetunionen ses som aktorer och dar sionismens framvaxt och krigen som specifika handelser kan ses som strukturella perspektiv.
Nevertheless, they re-emphasise their preference for content which situates the roots of the conflict in the modem era. Bra i det att man som lasare far just ett langt historiskt perspektiv pa en aktuell konflikt, vilket 21 ju ligger i linje med ett utav kursmalen. Mindre bra i det att Israel- Palestinakonflikten som sadan, sett med historiska glasogon, kanske inte ftillt ut ar kompatibel med judamas forskingring under antiken.
Urvalsstoffen ar snarlika varandra med lagom doser fakta vilka vi anser inte bor paverka vare sig lasarens helhetsforstaelse eller analytiska formaga. Men trots detta liar anda konkreta problematiseringar i texten dessvarre uteblivit. Det ar egentligen bara Epos forfattare som i textflodet valt att problematisera runt judamas krav pa nationellt territorium. Absent too in their essay is any orientation with some of the scholarly sources on the conflict 1 will be discussing in this thesis.
Although this is only one example of research on the history of the conflict in Swedish school History textbooks, and indeed in only one section of a student essay, the information the authors provides resonates with some of my earlier and later findings. In addition, and this will become clearer later, the position that the authors adopt in their examination of the textbooks also reflects in part some of the positions adopted by the teacher respondents 1 have interviewed for this thesis see chapter six.
For the sake of clarity we may characterise the latter as points of departure which reflect a more pro-Israeli or empathetic stance towards the plight of Jews or the Jewish people throughout history. De allmant deskriptiva texterna framhaver ocksa likaledes bade aktorer och strukturer som drivande i sakfragan. Sionismens framvaxande samt FN: Ingen indirekt historiskt dominerande orsak anges dock. Pa det stora hela tycker vi dock att lasaren utifran respektive laroboks resonemang bor forsta inneborden av konfliktens ursprung, samt kunna resonera kring densamma utifran en historisk infallsvinkel.
Furthermore, as 1 have mentioned, this
Usa tanker inte forsoka rakna civila offer aims to examine how the textbooks link to scholarly debates and sources on the conflict and on a more critical-analytical level how the history of the conflict is framed in connection with the political, ideological and cultural setting within which it is situated. In the following sub-section 1 will begin the first of my overviews of how the conflict is presented in Israeli History textbooks.
This will also enable the reader to contrast and compare the impact the different political, ideological and cultural contexts Swedish and Israeli have had on how the conflict is presented. The reconstruction of a past linked to the modem present in this manner also required a selective reading of sources.
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civila och militära frågor gradvis blivit allt svagare, vilket ökar ønskede at give uafhængighed til kolonierne. have to · måsta · have to pay · plikta för · haven · tillflyktsort · haven't · har inte · haversack · ryggsäck, tornister · I have been told · man har sagt mig · shave · raka .
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